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  • FIKISHA L. WARDEN, MD

FAT AND CHOLESTEROL

Hello and welcome to Hopkins Family Med & Urgent Care, PLLC Blog.



This blog will mainly contain content to go along with the Fat Part 1 YouTube Video- https://youtu.be/UG5NVpnlI28




FAT AND CHOLESTEROL Part 1


FAT- Greasy or oily substance we see in animals and even plants. Like protein and Carbs, Fat is a macronutrient that gives us energy. Although having too much fat in our diet can be harmful, it is important to eat some fat.


CALORIES- The energy people get from the food and drink they consume, and the energy they use throughout the day.


CHOLESTEROL- A fat found in our blood that is made in the liver, but also comes from food that we eat, such as: Meat, fish, egg, cheese, butter, but mainly animal products.


  • This waxy substance that naturally occurs in all parts of the body and is required for normal function.

  • IT IS FOUND IN CELL WALLS OR MEMBRANES THROUGHOUT THE BODY AND IS NECESSARY TO PRODUCE MANY HORMONES, VITAMIN D, AND THE BILE ACIDS THAT HELP DIGEST FAT.

  • The liver produces all your body needs. LIVER MAKES ABOUT 800 - 1,000mg PER DAY!


  • IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO CONSUME ANY OTHER CHOLESTEROL FROM YOUR DIET!


  • Excessive amounts in the bloodstream can lead to atherosclerosis.

  • Atherosclerosis - A condition in which fat and cholesterol are deposited in the walls of the arteries throughout the body, eventually generating signs AND symptoms of cardiovascular disease.


  • a high proportion of cholesterol in the blood is attached to low-density lipoprotein or LDL ( LDL also transports cholesterol to the tissues). This is why LDL is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.


We can reduce cholesterol by:

- Reducing saturated fats

- Eliminating trans fats

- Eat foods rich in omega 3 fats

- Increase soluble fiber

- Adding more protein----IF YOU DO,MAKE IT PLANT PROTEIN TO REDUCE STRESS ON BODY ORGANS LIKE THE KIDNEYS!

- Exercise


FATTY ACID- are carboxylic acid consisting of a hydrocarbon chain and a terminal carboxyl group, especially any of those occurrences as esters in fats and oils.


-when we eat we absorb fat and that fat is made into fatty acids. When the fatty acids are grouped together, they make triglycerides. Just like Amino acids are grouped to make protein!


TRIGLYCERIDES-

  • Esters formed from glycerol and three fatty acid groups.

  • Triglycerides are the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and high concentrations in the blood indicate an elevated risk of stroke.They are mainly carried around in the blood by VLDL (VERY LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN)


  • WHEN TRIGLYCERIDES ARE NOT USED IMMEDIATELY, THIS EXCESS SET OF CALORIES GET TRANSPORTED AND STORED IN FAT CELLS!

FAT AND CHOLESTEROL, SECTION 2


  • GOOD FATS -

  • MUFAs and PUFAs

  • MUFAs → no negative effects → slightly beneficial effects on health → evidence suggests MUFAs *might reduce blood pressure, enhance blood flow and minimally affect blood cholesterol making them heart healthy

  • PUFAs → beneficial overall → ESPECIALLY when they replace trans fat and Saturated fat in the diet.

MONOUNSATURATED FAT (MUFA)- Fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain, with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.


  • Solid when chilled, but liquid at room temperature.

  • Are healthy fats help lower the bad cholesterol in the body.


  • Monounsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA) - Liquid at room temperature, but may become cloudy and thickened in the refrigerator. Examples include olives, peanuts, avocados, pecans, almonds, their oils, and canola oil. HEART HEALTHY



POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACID (PUFA)- Fatty acids that contain more than one double bond in their backbone.

  • This class includes many important compounds , such as essential fatty acids

  • Solid when chilled, and “oils” at room temperature.

  • Healthy fat that is essential for brain function.

  • Mainly found in fish, plant based oils, seeds, and nuts.


  • Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) - Make up both the omega-3 (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) and omega-6 (linoleic acid, LA) essential fatty acids. Examples; walnuts, flaxseeds, hempseeds, vegetable oils (canola, soybean, and flaxseed), fish and marine oils.


  • PROTECT AGAINST CORONARY HEART DISEASE, CERTAIN CANCERS, AND OTHER INFLAMMATORY DISEASES


-LINOLEIC ACID- Polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid and is one of two essential fatty acids for humans, who obtain this through diet.

  • Colorless or white oil virtually insoluble in water.

  • The word linoleic derives from the greek work linon.

-ALPHA-LINOLEIC ACID- Polyunsaturated fat, is an n-3, or omega-3 essential fatty acid. ALA is found in many seeds and oils, including flaxseed, walnuts, chia, Hemp, any many common vegetables. In term of its structure, it is name all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid.

OMEGA 3 SOURCES FROM FISH INCLUDES SALMON, HERRING, SARDINES, AND MACKERELS. (THEIR MAYBE UNWANTED IMPURITIES LIKE PLASTIC, MURCURY PESTICIDES SEDIMENTS, PCB'S ETC.)



  • BAD FATS -

  • Saturated fat

  • Increases the risk of chronic diseases including; coronary artery disease, some types of cancers, kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and gallstones.


SATURATED FAT- Fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

  • A fat is made up of two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids.

  • Fats are made up of long chains of carbon atoms linked by single bonds and others are linked by double bonds.

  • Fats that have a higher portion of fatty acids that are less healthy.

  • Found in fatty cuts of beef, pork, dark meat, chicken skin, milk, and cheese.

  • Normally found in animal products , but they can be found in tropical oils like coconut and palm oils.

  • KNOWN TO RAISE BLOOD CHOLESTEROL AND HEART DISEASE!


  • UGLY FATS -

  • Trans Fat

  • Two to four times more damaging than saturated fats→ harmful and disease promoting → increase risk for heart disease → interferes with liver function → increase potential of low birth weight → interrupt essential fatty acids metabolism and worsen insulin resistance


TRANS FAT- Unsaturated fatty acid of a type occurring in margarine and manufactured cooking oils that goes through a hydrogenation process, having a trans arrangement of the carbon atoms adjacent to its double bond.


  • thought to increase the risk of atherosclerosis.

  • Fat made from chemical processes increases shelf life and flavor.


  • PARTIAL HYDROGENATION- Liquid unsaturated fat turned into a solid by adding hydrogen. Helps save money and extends the shelf life.


  • MINIMIZE THE SHELF LIFE OF YOUR HEALTH (IF HYDROGENATED OR PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED ON INGREDIENT LIST, RUN!



PHYTOSTEROLS- Plant sterols found in small amounts in all whole-plant foods. They are compounds similar in structure to cholesterol, but have been shown to help block the absorption of cholesterol in the gut.


  • Plant based fat, similar to cholesterol.

  • They function in plants the way cholesterol functions in animals.

  • Help to reduce blood cholesterol in animals like LDL

  • are anticancer and help in the immune response

  • Affect carotenoids absorption


BOTTOM LINE IS THAT WE SHOULD TRY TO REPLACE TRANS FAT AND SATURATED FATS WITH UNSATURATED FATS!




FAT AND CHOLESTEROL: SECTION 3 WITH RECAP


  • Fat helps with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals like carotenoids.

  • Fat is also a major source of energy

  • 9kcal/g of fat offers more than twice the amount of energy because both carbs and protein supply just 4kcal/g

  • Fat also provides essential fatty acids (LA and ALA) that the body CAN’T produce on its own and this must be consumed via diet.

  • Fatty acids at as precursors that help with coagulation (blood clotting), inflammation and gene expression

  • Dietary fat is found in both plant and animal sources

  • Plant fats tend to have lower melting points than do animal fats and are liquid at room temperature.

  • Tropical Oils: coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and palm oil; are high in saturated fatty acids and therefore are solid at room temperature.

  • Trans fatty acids are chemically altered in the lab to be solid at room temperature- stay away from it!

  • Trans fat is associated with higher blood cholesterol levels, breast and bowel cancer and increase rates of heart disease.

  • Evidence show that the amount of fat consumed is NOT as important as the SOURCE of that fat.

  • Fats derived from whole-plant foods are either neutral or health-protective; fats from animal products and processed vegetable oils are more strongly associated with chronic disease.

  • Low Fat Diet with 10 percent of total calories from fat is OPTIMAL because of the reversal of heart disease and other chronic diseases


  • 15 to 25 percent of total calories from fat or even greater than 40 percent of the total calories is healthful as long as the sources for that fat are whole-foods


  • Fats are generally not harmful when consumed in a plant-based diet from the whole plant than when it comes from high intake of oils and animal fat which causes chronic disease

  • Always remember these are general rules of thumb everyone respond differently depending on genetics, health status, exercise, stress, and other factors and ideally intake of fat is better from whole-food sources


  • Standard American Diet (SAD) has excessive amounts of omega-6 fatty acids and inadequate amounts of omega-3 fatty acids

  • OMEGA-3’s help prevent disease → OMEGA-6 overconsumption promotes inflammation


  • Two essential fatty acids → linoleic acid (LA, Omega-6) and alpha-linoleic (ALA, Omega-3) → the body uses to convert into other compounds needed to perform various functions

  • LA → easily converts into highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA’s)

  • ALA → has hard time converting into its final products - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)


  • Plant-based eaters have no direct source for EPA and DHA and these acids come directly from animal products only such as fish, fish oils, and specialty dairy and egg products


  • Recommended adequate intake levels of ALA - 1.6 grams for men and 1.1 grams for women

  • Ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids = 2:1 and 4:1 we should consume two to four times the amount of omega-6 than omega-3 → herbivores typical ratio = 14:1 to 20:1


  • Whole-Food high in omega-6 fatty acids include sesame seeds, tahini, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, soybeans (a.k.a edamame), wheat germ, and tofu.


  • Good sources for omega-3 fatty acids flaxseeds, hempseeds, leafy green vegetables, walnuts, and seaweed


  • Daily amount of ALA-omega 3 fatty acid is in 1 grounded tablespoon of flaxseed!


  • Balanced amount of omega-6 and omega-3 can be seen in flaxseeds, leafy green vegetables, hempseeds, and walnuts


  • Diets including Trans fat, high amounts of omega-6 fatty acids, and/or alcohol can hinder conversation to EPA and DHA.


We would like to thank you for visiting our blog and please subscribe to our Youtube channel as we will be bringing more educational content have a blessed one! -----Fikisha L. Warden, MD

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