FIKISHA L. WARDEN, MD
MICRONUTRIENT: VITAMINS PART III: WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Hello and welcome to Hopkins Family Med & Urgent Care, PLLC Blog. In this section of our nutrition series, we will be talking about vitamins. We will be breaking down the different aspects and what you need to know. Below will be our YouTube video to go along with this blog
Water-soluble vitamins- Consist of the 8 B-complex vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12) and vitamin C.
They Can be dissolved in water, not stored in the body, and excreted in the urine.
We need to replenish them every day.
Water soluble vitamins can be easily destroyed and washed out during storage, preparation, and cooking.
Water Soluble Vitamins
Thiamin (Vitamin B1):
This is one of the water soluble vitamins that is part of the b complex and it behaves like a coenzyme for carbohydrate and branched-chain amino acids metabolism to provide energy for our body.
Alcoholics are prone to deficiency due to decreased intake, inability to absorption and use as well as an increased demand. This deficiency is known as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome.
Beriberi is a rare thiamine deficiency because many foods are fortified with thiamine but this disease causes inflammation of our nervous system(Dry Beriberi) and heart and circulatory system which can lead to heart failure (Wet Beriberi ). This can also lead to pain, confusion, and paralysis.
The RDA for thiamin is set at 1.2 and 1.1 milligrams per day in adult men and women, respectively.
During Pregnancy and lactation, women require 1.4 milligrams a day.
Thiamine is found in the following foods:
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2):
Like thiamin, riboflavin also plays a role as a coenzyme in energy metabolism for protein, fats and carbs.
Riboflavin is important for growth and red blood cell formation.
Deficiency is rare since there are foods fortified with this vitamin,but this deficiency can lead to mouth sores, swollen tongue, inflamed and red skin, and a rare form of anemia.
This vitamin is very photosensitive and can be destroyed by sunlight, and if you are cooking riboflavin containing foods a good amount can be lost in cooking water during boiling.
Adult RDA is 1.3 milligrams for men and 1.1 milligrams for women. Requirement will increase to 1.4 during pregnancy and 1.6 during lactation.
Foods that contain Riboflavin are listed below:
Niacin (Vitamin B3):
Like thiamine and riboflavin is part of energy synthesis by metabolizing glucose and fatty acids.
Therapeutic doses are often used to adjust cholesterol levels like increase HDL, decrease triglycerides.
Niacin is important for the production of our DNA.
Pellagra is a deficiency of Niacin. Symptoms include: Confusion, Delusion, Diarrhea, Inflamed Mucous Membranes, and Scaly Skin Sores.
RDA for Niacin in adults is 16 and 14 milligrams per day for men and women. Increases to 18 milligrams during pregnancy and then down to 17 milligrams for lactation.
Below is a list of examples of plant-based Niacin sources:
Pantothenic Acid (VITAMIN B5):
Needed to make blood cells
Needed to make coenzyme A (Co A plays a role in biochemical reactions like making and oxidizing fatty acids).
Helps release energy from carbs by helping to make glucose, making and breaking down fatty acids.but the same could be said for protein.
Promotes healthy skin, hair, eyes and liver
Daily intake for adults is 5 milligrams; 6 milligrams for pregnancy; 7 milligrams for lactation
Deficiency is rare but when it occurs it can “Burning Feet Syndrome” where you can have distal paresthesia and GI distress
Composed of three compounds, Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, and Pyridoxamine, that are all converted into active forms Pyridoxal Phosphate and Pyridoxamine.
Functions as a coenzyme for more than 100 different enzymes that are primarily involved in amino acid metabolism.
Essential for red blood cell metabolism and for keeping blood sugar levels stable.
This vitamin is required for optimal function of both the nervous and immune systems.
Maintaining an adequate intake of this Vitamin also protects against heart disease.
Older people and people on a poor diet, may have less vitamin B6 leading to a deficiency
B6 deficiency do not appear until later when intake has been low for an extended time
Symptoms include: skin inflammation, sore tongue, depression, confusion, and convulsions, and microcytic anemia
RDA values for men and women age 19-50 is 1.3 milligrams; men over 51 is 1.7 milligrams; women over 51 is 1.5 milligrams. Pregnant women need 1.9 milligrams daily, and 2.0 milligrams when lactating. For children it’s 0.5 to 1mg per day.
Drugs can cause insufficiency and affect metabolism. Some include Isoniazid, penicillamine, hydralazine and levodopa/carbidopa
Vitamin B6 content found in certain foods in mg:
Asparagus, ½ cup cooked has 0.04 mg
Watermelon, ½ cup has 0.04 mg
Soybeans, ½ cup cooked has 0.20 mg
Spinach, ½ cup cooked has 0.22 mg
Banana, 1 medium has 0.43 mg
Biotin (VITAMIN B7 aka VITAMIN B 8, VITAMIN H):
Serves as a coenzyme during the synthesis of glucose and fatty acids and for the metabolism of amino acids.
Biotin deficiency is rare but will manifest as anorexia, glossitis , conjunctivitis, depression and hallucination, nausea and vomiting, dermatitis around the eyes, nose, and mouth, hair loss, neurologic symptoms like paresthesia
Ingestion of raw eggs can impair its absorption
Seen in liver, egg yolk, soybean products and yeast oat bran, oatmeal, almonds, peanut butter, lentils, black-eyed peas, mushrooms and spinach
Can interfere with laboratory assays at pharmacologic level affecting thyroid labs but NOT causing thyroid disease.
There is not enough data to have RDA so we use Adequate Intake (AI) which is 8-12 mcg for children and 30mcg for adults daily and 35 mcg for lactating women.
Folate (VITAMIN B9):
Helps produce and maintain new cells
Helps make DNA and RNA; prevents changes in DNA that could cause cancer
Pregnant women are advised to maintain adequate doses of folate because deficiency could cause premature birth defects, neural tube defects and/ or low birth weight babies.
OTHER THAN PREGNANCY FOLIC ACID DEFICIENCY CAN BE CAUSED BY POOR DIET, EXCESS ALCOHOL, MEDICATIONS LIKE ANTICONVULSANTS AND PROTON PUMP INHIBITORS!
You can develop megaloblastic anemia from deficiency because you need it to make RBC which carry oxygen to our body tissues and organs.
Deficiency can cause tiredness, weakness heart palpitations, shortness of breath, headache, difficulty in concentrating and irritability.
Evidence suggest that SUPPLEMENTAL folic acid increases certain health risks such as breast, colorectal and prostate cancers as well as a higher risk in childhood asthma and respiratory infection
NATURAL folate does NOT pose any health risks
Eat leafy greens, veggies and beans such as spinach, asparagus, collard greens, beets, lentils, pinto/black/kidney beans, strawberries, and oranges
RDA for folate daily is 400 micrograms(mcg) for both men and women, 600 mcg for pregnant women, 500 mcg for lactating women.
Folate Content Found in Certain Foods in mcg
Strawberries, ½ cup has 20 mcg
Orange juice, ½ cup has 24 mcg
Avocado raw,1/2 has 81 mcg
Cantaloupe, 1 cup has 34 mcg
Black beans, ½ cooked has 105 mcg
Cobalamin ( Vitamin B12):
Herbivores or strictly plant based eaters are the only ones that can't get this vitamin directly from food or sunlight.
Assists with RBC formation, neurological function, and DNA creation
B12 is made by microorganisms, bacteria, fungi, and algae
Plants & animals don't synthesize B12, they ingest microorganisms through unwashed food
Plant food may contain B12 through contamination from bacteria in the soil, but unlikely for developed countries to consume with safety practices that are put in place.
Symptoms of B12 deficiency include decreased sensation, dementia, difficulty walking, loss of bladder or bowel control, weakness, optic atrophy and depression
You can have pernicious anemia from deficiency as this vitamin like folate is needed for synthesis of RBC’s
Symptoms and deficiency levels varies for each individual
Recommended B12 intake daily is 2.4 mcg for men and women; 2.6 mcg for pregnant women; 2.8 mcg for lactating women.
We can attain B12 through nutritional yeast, fortified plant based milks, cereals, meat substitutes, and B12 supplements
Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C):
Acts as an antioxidant and helps in protein metabolism, immune function, and iron absorption
Helps create collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters
Deficiency leads to scurvy which is rare but causes swollen bleeding gums and opening of previous healed wounds
RDA for vitamin C is 90 milligrams for adult men, 75 milligrams for adult women, 85 milligrams while pregnant, 120 milligrams while lactating.
Vitamin C is contained in papaya, guava, pineapple, bell peppers, broccoli, brussel sprouts, kiwi, oranges, strawberries, cantaloupe, tomatoes
Vitamin C content found in different foods in mg
Blackberries, ½ cup has 15 mg
Honeydew, ½ cup has 15 mg
Collard greens, ½ cup cooked has 17 mg
Potatoes, ½ cup cooked has 10 mg
Cauliflower, ½ cup cooked has 27 mg
Mango, 1 medium has 57 mg
Cantaloupe, ½ cup has 30 mg
Brussels sprouts, ½ cup cooked has 48 mg
Strawberries, ½ cup has 57 mg
Papaya, 1 medium has 188 mg
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