FIKISHA L. WARDEN, MD
MICRONUTRIENT: VITAMINS PART II: FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
Hello and welcome to Hopkins Family Med & Urgent Care, PLLC Blog. In this section of our nutrition series, we will be talking about vitamins. We will be breaking down the different aspects and what you need to know. Below will be our YouTube video to go along with this blog
Fat- Soluble Vitamins-
include A,D, E, & K. They require fat for absorption.
Stored in your body’s tissues and excreted via feces
Excessive doses can lead to toxicity.
Deficiency is possible if inadequate fat is consumed or absorbed.
FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
A group of compounds essential for growth, vision, reproduction, and immune function.
Vitamin A that comes ready made in nature is only found in animals, but its provitamin form, carotenoids are found in abundance in fruits and vegetables, and this is converted into vitamin A.
Their are over 600 carotenoids that exist in nature, but only about 50 can be converted into retinol, which is the active form of vitamin A.
Beta- Carotene is the most active form of these carotenoids which come in foods with a spectrum of reds, oranges, and yellows hues. They work with vitamin E to help protect our health.
are powerful antioxidants meaning they stop oxidative damage and protect the body from free radicals- they stop the body from decay.
Lycopene, one of the most potent antioxidants, is known to prevent and treat prostate cancer. It is also effective against other cancers, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration.
When you cook lycopene which can be found abundantly in tomatoes it enhances its availability.
Lutein and Zeaxanthin are other carotenoids at high dosages reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.
High doses of beta carotene from food can lead to yellowing of the skin, but high doses from supplements, increases the risk of cancer.
The follow is a list of Plant-based sources of provitamin A:
RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) for VITAMIN A: MEN 900 micrograms
WOMEN 700 micrograms
PREGNANT 770 micrograms
LACTATING1 300 micrograms
What are the Vitamin A content found in some foods?:
Food with Vitamin A in mcg
Tomato Juice, 1.2 cup has 28 mcg
Papaya, 1 medium has 167 mcg
Nectarine, 1 medium has 50 mcg
Bok Choy, ½ cup has 180 mcg
Milk, Whole, ½ cup has 56 mcg
Mustard greens, ½ cup has 221 mcg
Broccoli, ½ cup has 60 mcg
Swiss chard, ½ cup has 268 mcg
Cow’s milk, 2%, ½ cup has 67 mcg
Beet Greens, ½ cup has 276 mcg
Cheddar Cheese, 1 oz. has 75 mcg
Dandelion Greens, 1/2 cup has 356 mcg
Tomato, 1 medium has 76 mcg
Spinach, ½ cup has 472 mcg
Mango, 1 medium has 80 mcg
Butternut Squash 1/2cup has 572 mcg
Apricots, raw, has 3101 mcg
Carrots, ½ cup has 665 mcg
Cantaloupe, ½ cup has 135 mcg
Pumpkin,1/2cup, canned has 953 mcg
Collard Greens, ½ cup has 148 mcg
Sweet Potatoes, ½ cup has 1,291 mcg
Kale, ½ cup has 2,443 mcg
Over 70% of Americans are lacking in vitamin D.
Vitamin D is an important vitamin for overall body functioning that every cell in the body contains vitamin D receptors
Two known functions of vitamin D are maintaining blood levels of calcium and phosphorus and supporting the cardiovascular system.
We generally measure your blood level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and it should be at least 35ng/mL. Optimum levels are 50 ng/mL and above.
We are all at risk for vitamin D deficiency no matter what they eat, so its important to get the levels checked by blood test.
People who are of darker skin, breastfed infants, people with limited sun exposure, obese individuals, elderly people, and anyone with gastrointestinal absorption issues are at higher risk for a vitamin D deficiency
Our skin produces vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
There is a cholesterol compound found in your skin called 7-dehydrocholesterol that is activated by UVB sun ray exposure. It then goes to our liver and kidneys eventually transforming into 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D( the active form of vitaminD)
If you live farther away from the equator you have a greater chance of a vitamin D deficiency, and are more at risk for many chronic diseases.
Ready made vitamin D is only found in animal products such as fatty fish and their liver oils, milk, beef liver, and egg yolks.
Vitamin D if fortified into foods like dairy and plant milks, fruit juices, cereals, breads, nutrition bars, and pasta.
Low vitamin D is associated with most chronic diseases, including: many cancers, heart disease, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, and autoimmune diseases.
How much vitamin D should you consume daily? :
1yr-70yrs 600 IU
After 71 800 IU
What are foods that contain Vitamin D?:
FOOD with VITAMIN D in mcg
Fortified Margarine, 1 tsp (not the best option its part of the ugly fat) has 0.5 mcg
Eggs 1 Large has 0.6 mcg
Fortified Plant Milk, 1 cup has 2.5-3.0 mcg
Fortified cow’s milk, 2% 1 cup has 2.9 mcg
Vitamin E has 8 different forms , but only active one that meets human requirement is alpha-tocopherol
It is rare to get a deficiency because it is so abundant in many foods and as a potent antioxidant, red blood cells become fragile and the body becomes more susceptible to damage when there is a deficiency.
Even Though oxygen is required for our survival, oxygen can cause an imbalance in your cells causing high exposure to free radicals and oxidative stress leading to things such as heart disease cancer and aging process. Antioxidants, like VITAMIN E, stop these free radicals and oxidative stress; thus preventing these conditions from occurring.
Vitamin E also participates in immune function, regulating gene expression and other metabolic processes.
Vitamin E helps keep the lining of the blood vessels smooth which helps prevent plaque build up.
vitamin E boose two enzymes that increase the release of a compound called prostacyclin, which prevents blood clots and keeps blood vessels open and flowing, this inturn helps our cardiovascular health.
RDA for Vitamin E
Ages 1-3 3 milligrams
Ages 4-8 7 milligrams
Ages 9-13 11 milligrams
Adult Men & Women 15 milligrams
lactation 19 milligrams
Plant sources of Vitamin E Avocados
Vitamin E content found in certain foods
Food with Vitamin E (mg)
Pear, 1 medium has 0.28 mg
Pomegranate, 1 medium has 1.7 mg
Soybeans, ½ cup has 0.3 mg
Sunflower Oil, 1 tsp has 1.85 mg
Apple, 1 Medium has 0.33 mg
Spinach, ½ cup cooked has 1.9 mg
Kohlrabi, ½ cup cooked has 0.43 mg
Avocado, raw, 1/2 has 2 mg
Quinoa, ½ cup has 0.58 mg
Mango, 1 medium has 2.3 mg
Olive oil, 1 tsp has 0.65 mg
Wheat Germ, 2 TB has 2.5 mg
Peanut Oil, 1 tsp has 0.71 mg
Peanut Butter, 2 TB has 2.9 mg
Canola Oil, 1 tsp has 0.79 mg
Peanuts, ¼ cup 3 has mg
Mustard Greens, ½ cup cooked has 0.85 mg
Hazelnuts, ¼ cup 4.32 mg
Kelp, ½ cup cooked has 0.9 mg
Wheat Germ Oil, 1 tsp has 6.72 mg
Canned Pumpkin, ½ cup, cooked has 1.3 mg
Almonds, ¼ cup has 7.8 mg
Turnip Greens, ½ cup cooked has 1.35 mg
Almond Butter, 2 TB has 8.3 mg
Swiss Chard ½ cup cooked has 1.6 mg
Vitamin K is the vitamin that is important for blood clotting because it begins the clotting and healing process and it is found abundantly in nature especially in green leafy plants
It is the coagulation regulator because it makes sure our blood clots only when we need to make a clot during injury.
When patients are on Warfarin or Coumadin, they need to make sure they get enough vitamin K to ensure the drug is working properly because Vitamin K balances it all out.
Vitamin K is part of bone metabolism. It mitigates the breakdown of bone minerals by osteoclasts and strengthens the composition of the bone.
For this reason, low vitamin K levels are associated with low bone density and high fracture rates.
Deficiency is rare but it can be seen in breastfed newborns and adults who are suffering from malabsorption or are chronically taking antibiotics. This can lead to decreased bone density and bleeding because of the function of the vitamin properties.
There are two types of vitamin K. The Menaquinone(found in bacteria) and Phylloquinone(plant version are the primary dietary source for Vitamin K)
Vitamin K foods need to be eaten with some fat, such as: Nuts, seeds, olives, and/or avocado to enhance absorption.
Men 19 and older Daily Vitamin K intake is 120 micrograms
Women 19 and older Daily Vitamin K intake is 90 micrograms
The following are foods that Vitamin K can be found
Food with Vitamin K (mcg)
Miso Paste, 1 TB has 15 mcg
Romaine Lettuce, Raw ½ cup has 24 mcg
Asparagus, 1/2 cup cooked has 45 mcg
Cabbage, ½ cup cooked has 81 mcg
Brussel Sprouts, ½ cup cooked has 109 mcg
Broccoli, ½ cup cooked has 110 mcg
Turnip greens, ½ cup cooked has 265 mcg
Collard Greens, ½ cup cooked has 418 mcg
Spinach, ½ cup cooked has 444 mcg
Kale, ½ cup cooked has 531 mcg
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